2012-04-17 16:43:42
1. How do MLPs compare with RBFs

Multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and radial basis function (RBF) networks are the two most commonly-used types of feedforward network. They have much more in common than most of the NN literature would suggest. The only fundamental difference is the way in which hidden units combine values coming from preceding layers in the network–MLPs use inner products, while RBFs use Euclidean distance.

1. How to set learning rate in back propagation?

In standard backprop, too low a learning rate makes the network learn very slowly. Too high a learning rate makes the weights and objective function diverge, so there is no learning at all. If the objective function is quadratic, as in linear models, good learning rates can be computed from the Hessian matrix. If the objective function has many local and global optima, as in typical feedforward NNs with hidden units, the optimal learning rate often changes dramatically during the training process, since the Hessian also changes dramatically. Trying to train a NN using a constant learning rate is usually a tedious process requiring much trial and error. With batch training, there is no need to use a constant learning rate. In fact, there is no reason to use standard backprop at all, since vastly more efficient, reliable, and convenient batch training algorithms exist.

1. How to select training algorithms?

There is no single best method for nonlinear optimization. You need to choose a method based on the characteristics of the problem to be solved. For objective functions with continuous second derivatives (which would include feedforward nets with the most popular differentiable activation functions and error functions), three general types of algorithms have been found to be effective for most practical purposes:

For a small number of weights, stabilized Newton and Gauss-Newton algorithms, including various Levenberg-Marquardt and trust-region algorithms, are efficient. The memory required by these algorithms is proportional to the square of the number of weights.

For a moderate number of weights, various quasi-Newton algorithms are efficient. The memory required by these algorithms is proportional to the square of the number of weights.

For a large number of weights, various conjugate-gradient algorithms are efficient. The memory required by these algorithms is proportional to the number of weights.

1. Why use activation function?

Activation functions for the hidden units are needed to introduce nonlinearity into the network. Without nonlinearity, hidden units would not make nets more powerful than just plain perceptrons (which do not have any hidden units, just input and output units). The reason is that a linear function of linear functions is again a linear function. However, it is the nonlinearity (i.e, the capability to represent nonlinear functions) that makes multilayer networks so powerful.

1. Should input be standardized?

That depends primarily on how the network combines input variables to compute the net input to the next (hidden or output) layer. If the input variables are combined via a distance function (such as Euclidean distance) in an RBF network, standardizing inputs can be crucial. If the input variables are combined linearly, as in an MLP, then it is rarely strictly necessary to standardize the inputs, at least in theory. The reason is that any rescaling of an input vector can be effectively undone by changing the corresponding weights and biases, leaving you with the exact same outputs as you had before. However, there are a variety of practical reasons why standardizing the inputs can make training faster and reduce the chances of getting stuck in local optima. Also, weight decay and Bayesian estimation can be done more conveniently with standardized inputs.

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